Educational Psychology - Understanding According to Experts, Scope, Theory & Benefits - For the discussion this time we will provide an overview of Educational Psychology  which in this case includes understanding according to experts, scope, theory and benefits, so that they can better understand and understand see the full review below.

Educational psychology is one branch of psychology that focuses on learning how to understand teaching and learning in an educational environment.


There are also those who explain that educational psychology is the science and applied sciences that describe various human activities in relation to the educational situation. And one example is learning how to attract students' attention so that they are more receptive to the lessons taught.

 

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And from the explanation above we can conclude that psychology in the field of education is intended to influence educational activities so that the learning and teaching and learning process can take place more effectively by paying attention to the mental responses and behavior of students.


Understanding Educational Psychology According to Experts

The following are some definitions of educational psychology according to experts, consisting of:

  1. According to Whiterington

    According to Whiterington "1982", the notion of educational psychology is a systematic study of the processes and factors related to human education.


  2. According to Sumadi Suryabrata

    According to Sumadi Suryabrata "1984", the understanding of educational psychology is a psychological knowledge of students in educational situations.


  3. According to Elliot et al

    According to Elliot et al "1999", the understanding of educational psychology is the application of psychological theories to study development, learning, motivation, teaching and problems that arise in the world of education.


  4. According to Muhibin Syah

    According to Muhibin Syah "2003", the understanding of educational psychology is a psychological discipline that studies psychological problems that occur in the world of education.


  5. According to Tardif

    According to Tardif "in Shah, 1997: 13", the understanding of educational psychology is a field of study that deals with the application of knowledge about human behavior in various educational endeavors.


  6. According to Barlow

    According to Barlow "1985", the notion of educational psychology is a knowledge based on psychological research that provides a series of resources to help a teacher in the teaching-learning process more effectively.

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The Scope of Educational Psychology

Here are some linkages in educational psychology, consisting of:


  • Learning
    In this case learning is a subject that covers various theories, principles, characteristics of student behavior and others.

     


  • Learning Process
    In this case the learning process is the subject of the stages of actions and events in the learning process of students.

     


  • Learning Situation
    In this case the learning situation is the subject of the atmosphere and environmental conditions, both physical and non-physical related to student learning activities.

And as for Samuel Smith, as quoted by Sumadi Suryabrata "1984" there are 16 topics covered in the scope of educational psychology, namely:

  1. Knowledge of educational psychology "the science of educational psychology".
  2. Characteristic trait since birth "heredity".
  3. Physical environment "physical structure".
  4. Student development "growth".
  5. All behavioral processes "behavior process".
  6. The nature and scope of learning "nature and scope of learning".
  7. All factors that influence the learning process "factor that condition learning".
  8. All laws and theories of learning "laws and theoris of learning".
  9. Measurement is all the basic principles and limits of measurement or evaluation "measurement: basic principles and definitions".
  10. Transfer of learning, including the field of study "transfer of learning subject matters".
  11. All practical perspectives on measurement "practical aspects of measurement".
  12. Basic statistical science "element of statistics".
  13. Spiritual / mental health "mental hygiene".
  14. Education that forms the character "character educations".
  15. Psychological knowledge about the field of secondary school studies "psychology of secondary school subjects".
  16. Psychological knowledge about the field of elementary school studies "psychology of elementary school subjects".

Educational Psychology Theory

Psychology in the field of education has several basic theories that form the basis and basic concepts of implementation including:


 

  • Theory of Behaviorism

In the theory of behaviorism "behavior" that becomes learning is a change in behavior that is the impact of the interaction between stimulus and response. Someone can be said to have learned if there is a change in behavior in that person.

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  • Operational Management Theory

In operational management theory, it is stated that a person's behavior is controlled by the consequences that may occur, both positive and negative support and positive and negative punishment.


Positive support is something that is pleasing to a behavior and negative support is removing the unpleasant thing as an acceptable attitude, and while positive punishment is a punishment for reducing unpleasant behavior and negative punishment is a punishment for reducing unpleasant behavior by taking something a lot of fun.


  • Classical Harmonic Theory

This theory involves learning new behavior through a continuous process, which in this classical harmonic theory is divided into three stages namely:

  1. The First Stage
    Before conditions, stimuli from the environment produce responses that have not been studied and there are responses that have never been thought of.
  2. Second Stage
    During adjustment, stimuli from the environment do not produce a response to known stimuli.
  3. Third Stage
    After remediation, the process of forming a new response.

  • Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theory of "awareness" focuses on changes in mental processes and structures that occur as a result of efforts to understand the surrounding environment.


  • Theory of Connectionism

The theory of "association" connectionism was developed by Edward L. Thomdike "1878-1949" known as the stimulus response theory. In this theory it is stated that the stimulus will send messages about the five senses and respond to behavior.


  • Gestalt theory

In the Gestalt theory explained that cognitive processes occur through the arrangement of messages or patterns that are interrelated with components so that it becomes a unity, and according to this theory generally people tend to see things around them as a whole.

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Benefits of Educational Psychology

Basically educational psychology has many benefits for the world of education, according to Muhammad and Wiyani "2013" there are several benefits that can be obtained from studying educational psychology including:


  1. Understanding Student Differences

    The understanding of the teaching teacher towards each student will produce learning interactions that are on target as well as effective and efficient learning.


  2. Creating a Conducive Learning Atmosphere

    The effectiveness of teaching and learning activities is strongly influenced by the ability of teachers to create a conducive learning atmosphere.


  3. The Right Learning Strategy

    By studying educationel psychology, a teacher can get to know the character of each student. That way it will find the right learning strategy so as to produce an effective teaching-learning process.


  4. Provide Guidance for Students

    This relates to students 'trust in teachers, with the students' trust in their teachers, the learning process will be more effective and easier.


  5. Proper Interaction With Students

    This is closely related to all the psychological principles that underlie proper communication. The right way of communicating will have an impact on a better teaching and learning process.


  6. Learning Evaluation

    Teachers who have good psychology will be able to give an assessment or evaluation of learning outcomes fairly without distinguishing each student.


  7. Motivate Learning

    Teachers who are able to provide support, encouragement to students will make these students study harder. This ability is obtained from educationel psychology that is obtained by teachers so that they are able to motivate their students.


  8. Setting Learning Objectives

    With the existence of educational psychology, the teacher can determine the learning objectives in accordance with what is desired as a learning outcome, the learning objectives are a measure of whether the teaching-learning process is successful or not.


  9. Using the Right Learning Media

    Educational psychology can also help in determining the most appropriate learning media for students, for example the use of visual, audio, motor and other media, so that teaching and learning activities become more interesting and enjoyable.


  10. Arrangement of Study Schedule

    The condition of the students is one of the references in arranging lesson schedules, fields of study that require complicated thinking such as mathematics will be more effective if it takes place in the early hours of learning because students' minds are still fresh and easy to concentrate.